Enslaved Spaces (ES) project aims to illustrate locations connected to the movement, containment, punishment, and trade in human capital within the Black Atlantic from 1440 until 1880. Sites of slavery in Africa served three systems: the domestic slave trade, the tran-Saharan slave trade, and the transatlantic slave trade. Among the questions raised were, how did slave markets and other designated sites emerge? Which routes could be accessed? As a result, the map highlights some key issues such as strategical positioning and the rapid development of these sites. In many areas of Africa slavery did not exist until the emergence of the tran-Saharan and transatlantic trade.
Natasha Bynoe is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of the West Indies - Cave Hill Campus and is the CEO of the African Diaspora Institute of Cultural Exchange and Historical Research. Currently, she is an Adjunct Lecturer at the University of The Gambia. She teaches undergraduate and post-graduate courses in Diaspora Studies, American History and Slavery in the Americas, and Indigenous Slavery in West and Central Africa.
Currently a doctoral student at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus in Barbados. She has written several articles for news agencies and journals.
Mr. Brathwaite is an Analytical Chemist, Environmental Professional and Certified Project Manager with over 25 years of experience. He has successfully completed a variety of complex and challenging assignments and has provided corporate advisory services to government, private sector and international donor clients.
He has completed projects that include petrochemical and industrial process operations, hotel and resort development, infrastructure planning (water, sewerage, roads, airports and ports), solid waste management, agriculture and tourism sector studies, quarrying and land development.
Technical Special Advisor
Roland K. Sodeyi is an independent software development manager.
He was born in London to Nigerian and Barbadian parents. With two sons from his Guyanese wife, he is interested in heritage information he can pass on to them.
He was especially drawn to this project particularly because it dealt with a part of the transatlantic slave trade of which very little seems to be in the public domain.
He was happy to lend his technical expertise to this work and is pleased that a resource such as this will be available especially for future generations to learn and benefit from.
A pioneer in realism art and is the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Art Ambassador for West Africa. As the founder of PITO Painting in the Open, the C.E.O. of Art Tricks in Ghana, his mission is to educate and inspire through art. He attended the University of Education in Winneba with honors Bachelors in Art Education.
Mr. Dodoo has worked for the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library, Ministry of Creative Art and Culture in Ghana, The National Theater of Ghana, and as an actor for the hit series Puzzled; other titles include Content Developer, Crypto NFTs, and Set Designer. Mr. Dodoo is extremely passionate about Africa and her diaspora.
Ensa Touray is a prominent Gambian historian and scholar. He obtained his bachelor of arts degree in history and English in 2004 and he obtained his master’s degree in 2007 from the University of the Gambia. He received his doctorate from the University of Ife, Nigeria. He majored in African History and wrote a thesis titled: “Foday Kaba: Nation Building and the Colonial Encounter 1875-1901.”
Currently, Touray is a lecturer in African History at the School of Arts and Humanities at the University of the Gambia. His areas of expertise include Africa in Global History; Problem of Nation Building in Africa since Independence, and West Africa States and Empires. Dr. Touray also delivered several academic papers at both local and international fora. In 2015 he delivered a paper on “Anglo-French Boundary Commission And The British Military Expedition Against Foday Kaba And His Allied 1891-1898,” during the early bird round of the third international conference on advances in economics, social science, and human behavior study in Bangkok Thailand. In 2014, he also delivered a paper on “Africa in the Historical Context of Globalization: From Medieval to Modern Era.” During a conference organized by global hand United Kingdom. His many academic reaches include “Kombo Before the Colonial Era, Early Establishments and Socio-political Transformation.”
Dr. Touray is also a member of several professional organizations including the Council for the Development Of Social Science Research In Africa(CODESRI), as well as the Athens Institute For Education And Research And Institute Of Research Engineers And Doctors, USA. His insightful and in-depth knowledge about African history has led him to carry our periodic academic research works in neighboring West African countries.
Dr. Afonso Vita, is the General Manager of Institute of Promotion of Tourism of Angola. He graduated from the Internacional Institute of Tourism of Tangier - Morocco. He received his masters degree From the Florida Metropolitan University of Orlando, now Everest in Florida - United State of América.
Mr. Vita is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Coimbra - Portugal. His defense is in a few months and look forward to addressing Mr. Vita, Dr. Vita very shortly.
Capitalizing on the government's mandate to promote culture and the proposed National Museum of The Bahamas, Nameiko Miller holds true to the belief that the fate of increasing community engagement in Bahamian culture and heritage lies in museum programs and exhibitions. Nameiko works as a Curator at the Antiquities Monuments and Museum Corporation since 2009.
With a background in History from University of The Bahamas, she decided to pursue higher learning in Museum Studies at the University of Florida, where completed her Master’s degree in December 2018. Among the areas of focus for her advanced studies is the processes of accession, collections documentation, and research and information dissemination through exhibitions, publications, lectures, public programming and public addresses.
Lance Parker is a Ph.D. candidate in history at the Wilberforce Institute for Slavery and Emancipation, an institution apart of the University of Hull. In 2021, he completed his Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree at the City College of New York with a thesis on the Jamaican Maroons in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Lance is also a member of the Mellon Mays Fellowship, a program that seeks to diversify academia with scholars from misrepresented backgrounds.
Christine Anderson is the Director of Archives at the USC-L Native American Studies Center. She is also the consulting archivist for the Waccamaw Indian People of South Carolina and the Oral History Project of the Georgetown County Museum. She will be teaching undergraduate courses in records management and preservation.
She has a BA in English from Coastal Carolina University and a Master's in Library and Information Science from the University of North Carolina Greensboro. Her research focus has been on Cultural Heritage Education in GLAM settings, though she shares a keen interest in culinary anthropology and the history of the South Carolina Lowcountry. She is an experienced journalist, photographer, and food and travel writer, which informs her research and writing of people and places.
Akindele Decker is a community historian, poet and writer born in Sierra Leone, West Africa. His writings cover topics dealing with the middle-passage, identity, and African history. He has served as a panelist and presenter for several platforms including the American Association of State and Local History on the topic of intercultural identity; and Prince George’s African American Museum and Cultural Center on Maroon culture and the global African Diaspora. He previously worked with Fambul Tik, a heritage company that organized a historic study tour for 70 African Americans, mainly Gullah, to Sierra Leone in 2019. This resulted in the South Carolina Educational TV notable Documentary, "Gullah Roots". He is the co-founder of African Curator, an educational company that publishes children's books on historical icons, installs historical markers, and hosts virtual symposiums for global dialogues about historical experiences of Africans and people of African descent in the Diaspora. He serves as his family genealogist and historian, with over 16 years worth of independent research into 19th Century Liberated Africans of Sierra Leone, 1792 Nova Scotia Settlers of Freetown, 19th Century West India Emigration and other areas related to his family history . He resides in Maryland, USA with his family.
Dr. Sidi is a historian, geographer, who worked at the Timbuktu Cultural Mission from 1993 to 2013. Dr. Sidi is the technical advisor of Mali Minister of Culture and currently Director of Timbuktu Cultural Heritage.
Anago James Akeem Osho is a multi-award-winner in heritage tourism and cultural promoter, historian, curator for the Badagry Slave Museum in Lagos, partner at the Afro-Brazilian Cultural Centre at Lagos Island, and is a member of the World Federation of Tour Guides Association headquarter in Austria.
As the proprietor of Anago James Akeem Osho Adventures, the Benin Republic English Tours, and Tour Guide Africa. He conducts tours teaching about the trans-Atlantic enslave trade experiences; his companies advocates for the promotion of African perspectives in information about new and ancient Africa.
As Ambassador for DNA Tested Yorubas of Nigeria on behalf of Imperial African History and Genetic Genealogical Society, the U.S.A, he serves the African diaspora as a bridge to reconnect with their African heritage.
Mr. Lamin Juwara is a final year Bachelor's Degree student majoring in Political Science at The University of The Gambia. He works as an Intelligence Analyst with The Gambia Government, where he uses his data analysis skills to provide valuable insights to government officials. He is also a skilled researcher and serves as a research assistant. After graduation, Mr. Juwara plans to continue working while pursuing a postgraduate degree in Political Science to contribute to the development of The Gambia.
Our map illustrates the history and geography of the slave trade in West and Central Africa between 1440-1860. The research conducted are from secondary and primary sources both written and oral accounts.
The contents of each record will consist of the following information:
CATEGORIES AND SUB-CATEGORIES
This map contains main and sub-categories. Please see below for clarification with definitions. The main categories are written in caps, and sub-categories start with a dash (-). Sub-categories have a code in parentheses, which will be displayed in the heading of each record.
Captive Market (CM): A market in which captives are exhibited and sold.
Trans-Saharan Market (TSM): Markets are located between Northern Africa and the Sahel region.
Space of Resistance (SP): An act of resisting bondage, either active or passive, to claim any measure of freedom against the system of slavery.
Assembly Point (AP): A designated space for assembly.
Captive Bath (CB): A water source for captives to bathe.
Captive Prison/Cage (CP): A prison or cage that houses captives.
Castle (C): A large building, typically of the medieval period, fortified against attack with thick walls, battlements, towers, and in many cases, a moat.
Fort (F): A trading station.
Port of Call (PC): A place where a ship docks on a voyage.
Factory/Trading Post (TP): An establishment for traders carrying on business in a foreign country; a merchant company trading station.
War Activity (W): A conflict between two or more kingdoms, villages, or groups of people.
Raids for Captives (RC): A rapid surprise attack by a kingdom, village, or group of people against another for kidnapping humans.
Escape Route (ER): A route used by the enslaved or captive to escape bondage.
Trans-Saharan Route (TR): Trade routes from northern Africa to the Sahel region and below.
River Route (RROU): An established and pre-arranged route by inland waterway for travel. Primarily for captives.
Land Route (LROU): An commonly used or pre-arranged route by land for travel.
WHO USES THE MAP
We aim to provide real-time updates and access to new research. This is a large-scale project that will take several years to complete. However, the study has a significant impact across several disciplines.
The Family Researcher:
It is possible to gain an insight into which ethno-societies resided in particular areas. This knowledge can significantly be used by descendants that received DNA results to discover potential routes traversed and the enslaved spaces. More importantly, to give acknowledgment to these spaces and to have a window, a tiny glimpse to understanding the slave trade on a deeper level.
The map is a critical aspect of understanding the slave trade on a micro-level. Our methodology consists of a three-prong approach. First, the use of primary sources (travel diaries, archeological reports, oral history); second, the information is verified by local and national scholars; and finally, verified by local griots and oral historians.